1: ‘tears of Heraclitus.’ Here Kochanowski is referring to Heraclitus of Ephesus, a philosopher of the late sixth century BC who lamented man’s innate frailty and the folly of his existence, cf. Seneca, On Anger II 10. It is tempting to believe that Kochanowski could also be thinking of Heraclitus of Halicarnassus, the Alexandrian poet of the third century BC. Unfortunately, only one of his epigrams is recorded in the Greek Anthology (VII 465) but he is the subject of one of the most celebrated epigrams of the Greek Anthology, written by his friend Callimachus, also a Lyric poet of wide renown. This epigram would surely have been known to Kochanowski: "One told me of thy death, Heraclitus, and it moved me to tears, when I remember how often the sun set on our talking. And thou, my Halicarnassian friend, liest somewhere, gone long ago to dust; but they live, thy ‘Nightingales’, on which Hades who seizeth all shall not lay his hand." (VII 80). Aside from this epigram, almost nothing is known about Heraclitus of Halicarnassus. It is thought that Nightingales was the title of a collection of poems by Heraclitus. He is also included by Strabo among the distinguished natives of Halicarnassus, along with Herodotus and Dionysus.